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Technical Papers

On this page you will find a number of refereed journal articles, application notes, and white papers relating to both quantum cascade lasers (QCL), and External Cavity quantum cascade Laser (ECqcL™) technologies and applications.  Over the past few years, QCLs have evolved from scientific curiosities to enablers of commercial instruments, providing sensing, detection, and molecular spectroscopy.  Here you'll find discussions ranging from the basic physics of QCL core technology to system level applications. Topics include stand-off explosive detection, distributed sensor networks, trace gas analysis, ring resonators and waveguides, as well as in vitro glucose detection, and mid-IR imaging. Feel free to review and download information of interest from this growing pool of resources.

If you would like to share your work in mid-IR quantum cascade lasers with others, please send a pdf of your paper or provide a link to  We would be pleased to add it to our site for the benefit of all.


Published Papers

2014-07-24 Sensitive detection of CO2 concentration and temperature for hot gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption spectroscopy near 4.2 lm [PDF, 1MB]

2014-07-24 Quantum cascade laser–based hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue [PDF, 2MB]

2014-07-24 Heterogeneously Integrated Silicon Photonics for the Mid-Infrared and Spectroscopic Sensing [PDF, 2.7MB]

2014-07-24 On-Chip Integrated Mid-Infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach−Zehnder Interferometer [PDF, 2MB]

2014-08 Quantum cascade laser-based mid-infrared spectrochemical imaging of tissues and biofluids

Brookhaven National Lab 2014-02 Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies of Carbon-to-Metal Hydrogen Atom Transfer Involving Os-Centered Radicals: Evidence for Tunneling
Mechanism of the Formation of a Mn-Based CO2 Reduction Catalyst Revealed by Pulse Radiolysis with Time-Resolved Infrared Detection
Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

2013-10-10 Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser [PDF, 800B]
2013-08-08 On the application of cw external cavity quantum cascade infrared lasers for plasma diagnostics [PDF, 1MB]
2013-08-08 Applications of quantum cascade lasers in plasma diagnostics: a review [PDF, 2MB]
2013-08-08 Plasma Chemical Study of a RF Discharge Containing Aluminum Tri-Isopropoxide Using MIR Absorption Spectroscopy Based on External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Lasers [PDF, 190KB]


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2013-03-23 Breath Analysis with Broadly Tunable Quantum Cascade Lasers [PDF, 1MB]

2014-08-23 Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing on human subjects using mid-infrared light
In vitro measurements of physiological glucose concentrations in biological fluids using mid-infrared light [PDF, 1MB]


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2013-03-21 Quantum cascade laser open-path system for remote sensing of trace gases in Beijing, China [PDF, 1.8MB]

University of Alberta
2013-03-20 Multi-modal characterization of nanogram amounts of a photosensitive polymer [PDF, 718KB]
16 January 2014, Photoacoustic spectroscopy of surface adsorbed molecules using a nanostructured coupled resonator array [PDF, 890KB]

Naval Research Laboratory 2012-06-27 Chemical Imaging using Infrared Photo-thermal Microspectroscopy
Stand-Off Detection of Trace Explosives Via Resonant Infrared Photothermal Imaging
Performance characteristics of a continuous wave compact widely tunable external cavity interband cascade laser [PDF, 706KB]

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2012-06-26 Frequency characterization of an External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser at 4.5 µm using a Frequency Comb [PDF, 1.3MB]


Dual beam photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of solids using an external cavity quantum cascade laser [PDF, 319KB]
2012-05-11 Nonpolar nitrous oxide dimer: Observation of the combination bands of (14N2O)2 and (15N2O)2 involving the torsion and antigeared bending modes [PDF, 965KB]

2012-03-09 Morphed intermolecular potential of OC:HCCH complex based on infrared quantum cascade laser spectroscopy [PDF, 449KB]
2012-03-09 CMM-RS Potential for Characterization of the Properties of the Halogen-Bonded OC-Cl2 Complex, and a Comparison with Hydrogen-Bonded OC-HCl [PDF, 1.7MB]

University of Alberta
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University of Tennessee
2012-03-09 Pump–probe photothermal spectroscopy using quantum cascade lasers [PDF, 800KB]

2012-02-23 Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser [PDF, 1.46MB]

University of Oxford 2012-02-23 Applications of QCLs in studies of chemical dynamics[PDF, 1MB]
Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser (APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 2009) [PDF, 290KB]
Rapid passage effects in nitrous oxide induced by a chirped external cavity quantum cascade laser (APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 2009) [PDF, 355KB]

2012-02-06 ν4 band of CH4 in helium nanodroplets: A probe of the dynamical response of a superfluid

2012-02-06 Attenuated total reflection mid-IR-spectroscopy for electrochemical applications using a QCL

2011-10-10 Infrared absorption nano-spectroscopy using sample photoexpansion induced by tunable quantum cascade lasers, F. Lu and M.A. Belkin
2014-07-24 Tip-enhanced infrared nanospectroscopy via molecular expansion force detection

2011-10-10 Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface

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2011-09 Lasers à cascade quantique dans les applications militaires modernes

2011-08-12 New photoacoustic cell design for studying aqueous solutions and gels






2011-07-12 Infrared Nanoscopy of Dirac Plasmons at the Graphene-SiO2 Interface, Z. Fei, D.N. Basov, et al.

Mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities in silicon

Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy and Photoinduced Chemistry of Al-(CO)n Clusters in Helium Nanodroplets

Rice University



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Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics [PDF, 2MB]

University of Alberta Detection of benzene and toluene gases using a mid-infrared continuous-wave external cavity quantum cascade laser at atmospheric pressure [PDF, 476KB]
Real-time monitoring of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene in a photoreaction chamber with a tunable mid-infrared laser and ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectroscopy [PDF, 728KB]

Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 µm [PDF, 442KB]

Daylight Solutions Logo Utilizing broad gain bandwidth in quantum cascade devices [PDF, 703KB]

Army Research Laboratory SeparatorSmart System Technology and Commercialization Center Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Trace Vapor Detection and Molecular Discrimination [PDF, 285KB]

Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics 2015-11-16 External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Spectroscopy for Mid-IR Transmission Measurements of Proteins in Aqueous Solution [PDF, 340KB]
2015-11-16 Method for Time-Resolved Monitoring of a Solid State Biological Film Using Photothermal Infrared Nanoscopy on the Example of Poly‑L‑lysine [PDF, 1MB]
Tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for the simultaneous determination of glucose and lactate in aqueous phase [PDF, 263KB]
Tunable Mid-Infrared Lasers in Physical Chemosensors towards the Detection of Physiologically Relevant Parameters in Biofluids

Rice University
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QEPAS detector for rapid spectral measurements [PDF, 1MB]

Rice University NO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy and external cavity quantum cascade laser [PDF, 500KB]
A mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection (JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 2009) [PDF 700KB]

University of Alberta Jet-cooled infrared spectra of molecules and complexes with a cw mode-hop-free external-cavity QCL and a distributed-feedback QCL [PDF, 1.4MB]

Naval Research Laboratory Stand-Off Detection of Trace Explosives Via Resonant Infrared Photothermal Imaging
Performance characteristics of a continuous wave compact widely tunable external cavity interband cascade laser [PDF, 706KB]

University of Nottingham Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis [PDF, 376KB]

University of Pennsylvania 30 September 2011: Achieving Secondary Structural Resolution in Kinetic Measurements of Protein Folding: A Case Study of the Folding Mechanism of Trp-cage
Infrared Signature and Folding Dynamics of a Helical β-Peptide [PDF, 694KB]

Adelphi University - Dept of Physics Extremely sensitive detection of NO2 employing off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy coupled with multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy: 28 ppt of N2O
Enhancement of trace gas detection by integrating wavelength modulated spectra across multiple lines [PDF, 525KB]
Enhanced sensitivity for the detection of trace gases using multiple line integrated absorption spectroscopy (APPLIED OPTICS, 2009)
Absorption and wavelength modulation spectroscopy of NO2 using a tunable, external cavity continuous wave quantum cascade laser (APPLIED OPTICS, 2009)

Army Research Laboratory
Development of a MEMS-Scale Photoacoustic Chemical Sensor Using a Quantum Cascade Laser [PDF, 240KB]

Oak Ridge National Laboratory
University of Tennessee
Standoff photoacoustic spectroscopy (APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 2008) [PDF, 455KB]
Standoff Spectroscopy of Surface Absorbed Chemicals (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, 2009) [PDF, 860KB]

Natural Resources Canada Mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of solids using an external-cavity quantum-cascade laser (OPTICS LETTERS, 2008) [PDF, 310KB]

White Papers

Complete spectral coverage using a mode hopping laser

Selex Distributed nerve gases sensor based on IR absorption in hollow optical fiber [PDF, 4.46MB]

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